The town stands on a natural route which links the province of Málaga with the North of Cadiz, at one extreme of the Antequera basin, among cereal and olive fields.
Its main areas of scenic and ecological interest is the region by Dulce, Salada, Redonda, Capacete, Marcela, Cerrero and Camuñas Lagoons, declared a Nature Reserve by the Andalusian Regional Government. The town’s most notable monument is Our Lady’s Church.
Campillos is famous for its long tradition of producing leather garments.
The region has been the scene of numerous archaeological discoveries pertaining to prehistoric times, particularly to the Neolithic period, which have appeared in the hills which fall within the municipal boundary; Los Castillejos was the site of relics from the Ibero-Roman times; and a Visigoth settlement appears to have once existed in a location known as El Moralejo.
The present-day village dates back to 1482.
After the conquest of Teba by Ramirez de Guzman and the subsequent pacification of the area, natives of Osuna came to work as coal merchants and cattle farmers, as a result of the abundance of holm oaks and pastures. Settlers from Teba and Antequera followed later.
In 1680, the inhabitants of Campillos bought the right to jurisdiction over their own village, which had hitherto belonged to the Count of Teba, and King Charles II granted it full village status.
It was named the headquarters of the administrative district in 1821.
In 1975, with the building of Guadalteba Dam and the disappearance of the village of Peñarrubia beneath its waters, the municipal area of Campillos was extended by the incorporation of the territory of the aforementioned location into its boundaries.